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World War 1 at Sea

 

World War 1 Chronology: PRINCIPAL EVENTS 1914-1918, Part 1, July 1914 to December 1915

 

The Political and Military Background to the War at Sea

Direct to 1916, 1917, 1918

"The Scrap of Paper" for which Britain went to war
 (Library of Congress, click to enlarge)

on to 1916

 

 

 

A Modern Introduction

 

An ideal starting chronology for the political and military background to the war at sea has to to be the original and official volume published by the HMSO in 1922. It was as accurate as it could be, comprehensive with its seven or so parts, and reflected the priorities of that time. It is also inevitably British-centred.

 

Taking Part 1, the General Chronological List, the contents have been laid out in five columns, and week by week within those columns, an attempt has been made to group them by country or front or campaign. In the Political column, all international dealings have been defined as Diplomacy. In the Maritime column, the order is generally Policy & Strategy, Navy, Type of Warfare, Locations - these will be updated in time.

 

The beginning and end of the major Western and Eastern Front battles have been highlighted in bold to help appreciate their sequence.

 

This chronology also serves as a framework for a growing number of contemporary plans and charts of the war at sea. Included so far are the in-volume charts of the official "Naval Operations" by Sir Julian Corbett (volumes 1-3) and Henry Newbolt (Volumes 4-5), and the sketch plans from Conrad Gato's "The Navy Everywhere" and "The Navy in Mesopotamia".

 

There are also links to Royal Navy and related despatches from the London Gazette.

 

HISTORY OF THE GREAT WAR

 

BASED ON OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS

 

 

 

 

PRINCIPAL EVENTS

 

1914-1918

 

 

 

Compiled by

THE HISTORICAL SECTION OF THE

COMMITTEE OF IMPERIAL DEFENCE

 

 

 

 

LONDON

PRINTED & PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE

 

1922

 

Price 10s. 6d. net

 
 

 

 Introductory maps highlighting naval events by year have been added.  

 

 

JUNE 1914

POLITICAL

 

NAVAL & MARITIME (including transporting troops, and landings)

Sunday

28th - The Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated at Sarajevo.

 

JULY 1914

POLITICAL

 

NAVAL & MARITIME

WEDNESDAY 1st JULY

Sunday

5th - The Kaiser receives at Potsdam special envoy from Austrian Emperor and promises "the full support of Germany" in the event of Austrian action against Serbia. He consults his military and naval advisers before, leaving for a cruise in northern waters.

 

MONDAY 6th JULY

 

 

MONDAY 13th JULY

Tuesday

14th - Council of Austro-Hungarian Ministers finally determine on action against Serbia.

Sunday

19th - Council of Austro-Hungarian Ministers approve of draft ultimatum to Serbia.

 

 

MONDAY 20th JULY

Thursday

23rd - Austro-Hungarian Government send ultimatum to Serbia (see 25th).

Friday

24th - German Government submit note to Entente Governments approving Austrian ultimatum to Serbia (see 23rd).

24th - British Foreign Minister (Sir E. Grey) initiates proposals for an international conference in order to avert war (see 27th and 28th).

24th - Belgian Government declare that, in the event of war, Belgium will uphold her neutrality "whatever the consequences" (see 31st).

Saturday

25th - Serbian Government order Mobilisation (see 23rd).

25th - Austria-Hungary severs diplomatic relations with Serbia. Austro-Hungarian Minister leaves Belgrade (see 26th).

25th - Serbian Government transferred from Belgrade to Nish (see November 3rd, 1915).

Sunday

26th - Austro-Hungarian Government order Partial Mobilisation as against Serbia (see 28th and 31st).

26th - Montenegrin Government order Mobilisation (see August 5th).

26th - The Kaiser returns from the Baltic to Berlin (see 5th).

 

ROYAL NAVY

26th - British Admiralty countermand orders for dispersal of Fleets (see 28th).

 
HMS "Dreadnought", battleship, in 1906 (Maritime Quest)

MONDAY 27th JULY

27th - French and Italian Governments accept British proposals for an international conference (see 24th).

Tuesday

28th - Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia (see 25th and 26th).

28th - German Government reject British proposals for an international conference (see 24th and 27th).

Wednesday

29th - Russian Government order Partial Mobilisation as against Austria. (Evening) - Russian Minister for War orders General Mobilisation without the knowledge of the Tsar (see 30th and 31st).

29th - Hostilities commence between Austria-Hungary and Serbia: Belgrade bombarded by Austrian artillery (see 25th, and December 2nd).

29th - German Government make proposals to secure British neutrality (see 30th).

29th - British War Office send out telegrams ordering "Precautionary Period" (2.10 p.m.).

Thursday

30th - The Tsar signs order at 4 p.m. for mobilisation of Russian army (see 20th and 31st).

30th - British Government reject German proposals for British neutrality (see 20th).

Friday

31st - Belgian Government order Mobilisation (see 24th).

31st - Russian Government order General Mobilisation (gee 29th and 30th).

31st - Austro-Hungarian Government order General Mobilisation (see 26th and 28th).

31st - German Government send ultimatum to Russia (presented at midnight, August 1st) (see August 1st).

31st - State of "Kriegsgefahr" proclaimed in Germany (see August 1st).

31st - Turkish Government order Mobilisation (to commence August 3rd) (see October 29th).

31st - London Stock Exchange closed (see January 4th, 1915).

 GERMAN NAVY

27th - German High Seas Fleet recalled from Norway to war bases.

S.M.S. "Derfflinger", battlecruiser (Maritime Quest)

 

ROYAL NAVY

28th - British Fleets ordered to war bases (see 26th).

29th - British Admiralty send "Warning Telegram" to the Fleets.

ROYAL AUSTRALIAN NAVY

30th - Australian Government place Australian Navy at disposal of British. Admiralty.

 

 

AUGUST 1914

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

SATURDAY 1st AUGUST

DIPLOMACY

1st - German Government order General Mobilisation and declare war on Russia (see July 31st).

1st - French Government order General Mobilisation.

Sunday

2nd - German Government send ultimatum to Belgium demanding passage through Belgian territory (see 3rd, and July 24th).

BRITAIN

2nd - Moratorium proclaimed in Great Britain (see November 4).

GERMANY

2nd - General von Moltke (Chief of the Great General Staff since 1906) appointed Chief of the General Staff of the German Field Armies (see September 14th).

WESTERN FRONT

Sunday

2nd - German troops cross frontier of Luxembourg (see November 20th, 1918).

2nd - Hostilities commence on French frontier.

 

EASTERN FRONT

1st - Hostilities commence on Polish frontier.

 

 

ROYAL NAVY

1st - British Government order Naval Mobilisation.

2nd - British Government guarantee naval protection of French coasts against German aggression by way of the North Sea or English Channel.

BALTIC

2nd - Libau bombarded by German cruiser "Augsburg" (see November 17th).

 

MONDAY 3rd AUGUST

DIPLOMACY

3rd - Belgian Government refuse German demands (see 2nd and 4th).

3rd - British Government guarantee armed support to Belgium should Germany violate Belgian neutrality.

3rd - Germany declares war on France.

3rd - British Government order General Mobilisation.

3rd - Italy declares neutrality.

Tuesday

4th - British Government send ultimatum to Germany. Great Britain declares war on Germany at 11 p.m. (midnight 4th-5th by Central European time).

4th - Belgium severs diplomatic relations with Germany (see 2nd and 3rd). Germany declares war on Belgium.

4th - Secret Alliance between Germany and Turkey signed at Berlin.

Wednesday

5th - Montenegro declares war on Austria-Hungary (see July 26th).

Thursday

6th - Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia. (Declaration presented at St. Petersburg).

6th - Serbia declares war on Germany (see July 28th).

Saturday

8th - Montenegro severs diplomatic relations with Germany. "State of War" commences between Montenegro and Germany (see 5th).

8th - Swiss Government order Mobilisation.

9th - Belgian Government proposal for neutralisation of African free trade zone formulated (see 22nd).

BRITAIN

5th - First meeting of British War Council (Formed to exercise the functions of the Committee of Imperial Defence, but with additional executive powers.) (see May 14th, 1915).

6th - Field-Marshal Earl Kitchener succeeds Mr. Asquith as Secretary of State for War, Great Britain. (Mr. Asquith held the appointment from March 31st, 1914) (See June 5th, 1916.)

WESTERN FRONT

Tuesday

4th - German troops cross Belgian frontier and attack Liege (see 3rd and 7th, and November 26th, 1918).

4th - Staff of British Expeditionary Force appointed: — Commander-in-Chief: Field-Marshal Sir John French (see December 15th, 1915); Chief of General Staff: Lieut.-General Sir Archibald Murray (see January 24th. 1915); Adjutant-General: Lieut.-General Sir Nevil Macready (see February 21st, 1916); Quartermaster-General: Lieut.-General Sir William Robertson (see January 24th, 1915).

Thursday

6th - "Battle of the Frontiers" (General name covering all operations of the French armies up to the Battle of the Marne) begins in France.

Friday

7th - City of Liege occupied by German forces (see 4th and 10th).

7th - French troops cross the frontier of Alsace (see 2nd).

Saturday

8th - Mulhouse (Alsace) occupied by French forces (see 7th and 11th).

AVIATION

4th - Two German airships pass over Brussels by night (first hostile act in the air).

 

EASTERN FRONT

3rd - The Grand Duke Nicholas appointed Commander-in-Chief Russian armies (see 14th).

 

WEST AFRICA

8th - British forces cross frontier of Togoland and occupy Lome (see 13th and 20th).

 

Escape of "Karlsrühe" and "Emden" (Corbett, Vol 1, pp50)

 

 

S.M.S. Prinz Eitel Frederich in civilian service (Photo Ships)

 

HMS Amphion (Navy Photos/Bruce Constable)

 

S.M.S. Goeben (Photo Ships)

 

Dar Es Salaam Harbour (shows operations on 28 November 1914)

 

CONTRABAND CONTROL

4th - British Government issue Proclamation specifying articles to be treated as contraband (see 20th, and September 21st).

BRITISH TROOP MOVEMENTS

7th - First units of British Expeditionary Force land in France (see 10th).

ALLIED NAVIES

6th - Naval Convention between France and Great Britain concluded in London. French Admiral to command Allied Naval Forces in the Mediterranean. (See November 9th.)

ROYAL NAVY

3rd - British Government issue Proclamation authorising requisition of shipping (by Royal Navy).

4th - British Grand Fleet constituted under Admiral Sir John Jellicoe (see November 29th and December 4th. 1916).

CRUISER WARFARE

4th - German armed merchant cruiser "Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse" leaves Bremen (see 26th).

6th - Action between H.M.S. "Bristol" and German cruiser "Karlsruhe" in the West Indies (see November 4th). (plan - upper left)

6th - German armed merchant cruiser "Prinz Eitel Friedrich" (left) leaves Tsingtau (see January 28th and April 8th, 1915).

U-BOAT WARFARE

9th - H.M.S. "Birmingham" sinks German submarine "U.-15" in the North Sea. (First submarine destroyed.)

MINE WARFARE

5th - Minelaying in the open sea commenced by the Germans, east of Southwold (see October 3rd). German minelayer "Konigin Luise" sunk.

6th - H.M.S. "Amphion" sunk by mine off Yarmouth. (left)

MARITIME AVIATION

9th - British aerial cross-Channel patrol for the protection of transports instituted.

MEDITERRANEAN

4th - German warships "Goeben" and "Breslau" bombard Philippeville and Bona respectively (see 7th and 11th).

7th - Action between H.M.S. "Gloucester" and the "Goeben" (upper left) and "Breslau" off the coast of Greece (see 4th and 11th).

EAST AFRICA

8th - Hostilities commence in East Africa (see 15th). H.M.S. "Astraea" bombards Dar es Salaam (see September 4th, 1916). (plan - left)

PACIFIC

6th - Admiral von Spee's squadron, "Scharnhorst" (flag), "Gneisenau," "Nurnberg" joined on October l2th and 14th respectively by "Dresden" and ''Leipzig", leaves Ponape, Caroline islands (see September 22nd).

MONDAY 10th AUGUST

DIPLOMACY

10th - France severs diplomatic relations with Austria-Hungary (see 12th).

Wednesday

12th - Great Britain and France declare war on Austria-Hungary (see 10th).

Friday

14th - Proclamation issued by Russian Commander-in-Chief (The Grand Duke Nicholas) promising autonomy to Poland (see April 3rd, 1915).

Saturday

15th - Japanese Government send ultimatum to Germany demanding evacuation of Tsingtau (see 23rd, and September 2nd).

WESTERN FRONT

Tuesday

11th - Mulhouse retaken by German forces (see 8th and 19th).

Friday

14th - Battles of Morhange and Sarrebourg begin (see 20th)

Sunday

16th - Last forts of Liege captured by German forces (16th/17th) (see 4th and 7th).

AVIATION

13th - Four squadrons Royal Flying Corps fly from Dover to France. (First units to cross by air.)

EASTERN FRONT

 

SERBIAN FRONT

12th - Austrian forces cross the Save and seize Shabatz (see 25th).

13th - Austrian forces cross River Drina and begin first invasion of Serbia (see 25th).

 

 

 

EAST AFRICA (plan - below)

15th - German troops cross frontier of British East Africa and occupy Taveta (see 8th. November 2nd, and March 10th, 1916).

The Coast of East Africa

 

WEST AFRICA

13th - Allied advance on Kamina (Togoland) from Lome begins (see 8th and 26th).

CONTRABAND CONTROL

11th - French Government issue first list of contraband (see 25th and November 6th).

BRITISH TROOP MOVEMENTS

16th - Landing of original British Expeditionary Force (4 Divisions and 1 Cavalry Division) in France completed (announced August 18th) (see 7th).

MARITIME AVIATION

10th - British aerial coast patrol established.

ADRIATIC

15th - Junction of British and French squadrons effected at entrance to the Adriatic.

16th - Naval action in the Southern Adriatic: Austrian light cruiser "Zenta" sunk by Allied squadron.

AEGEAN

11th - German warships "Goeben" and "Breslau" enter the Dardanelles (see 4th and 7th).

MONDAY 17th AUGUST

DIPLOMACY

Saturday

22nd - Austria-Hungary declares war on Belgium (see 28th).

22nd - German Government agree to Belgian proposal, made through Spanish Government, re African free trade zone (see 9th, and November 20th).

Sunday

23rd - Germany severs diplomatic relations with Japan (see 15th).

23rd - Japan declares war on Germany (see 15th).

BRITAIN

21st - British Government issue orders for the raising of the first New Army of six Divisions (see May 9th, 1915).

BELGIUM

17th - Belgian Government transferred from Brussels to Antwerp (see October 7th).

VATICAN

20th - Death of Pope Pius X (see September 3rd).

PERSIA

18th - Vossuq ed Doulch, Persian Foreign Minister, resigns. (Appointed January 11th, 1913.) (See 19th, and August 29th, 1916.)

19th - Ala es Sultaneh, Persian Prime Minister, resigns (appointed January 11th, 1913) and is appointed Foreign Minister (see 18th, and February 20th, 1915). Mustaufi ul Mamalek appointed Persian Prime Minister (see March 14th, 1915).

WESTERN FRONT

Tuesday

18th - Battle of the Gette, Belgium (18th/19th).

Wednesday

19th - Belgian Army retreats from the Gette on Antwerp.

19th - Mulhouse again taken by French forces (see 11th and 25th).

Thursday

20th - Brussels occupied by German forces (see November 18th, 1918).

20th - Battles of Morhange and Sarrebourg end (see 14th).

20th - Longwy invested by German forces (see 26th).

Friday

21st - German forces begin attack on Namur (see 25th).

21st - Battle of Charleroi begins (see 24th).

Saturday

22nd - Battle of the Ardennes begins (see 24th).

Sunday

23rd - Battle of Mons (see 24th).

AVIATION

23rd - German airship "Z.-8" shot down in the Vosges.

EASTERN FRONT

20th - Battle of Gawaiten-Gumbinnen (East Prussia) (19th/20th).

23rd - Battle of Tannenberg begins (see 31st).

23rd - First Battle of Krasnik (Poland) begins (see 25th).

23rd - General von Hindenburg takes over command of German Eighth Army (see September 18th).

SERBIAN FRONT

First Austrian invasion of Serbia continues.

17th - Battle of the Tser and the Jadar (Serbia) begins (see 13th).

21st - Battle of the Tser and the Jadar ends. Austrian Armies in Serbia retreat.

 

WEST AFRICA

23rd - General C. M. Dobell appointed to command Allied land forces operating in the Cameroons. (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)

SOUTH WEST AFRICA

21st - German forces from German South-West Africa cross frontier of British South Africa (see September 19th).

 

LAWS OF NAVAL WAR

20th - First British Order in Council revising "Declaration of London" issued (see October 29th).

EMPIRE TROOP MOVEMENTS

19th - First unit of Indian Expeditionary Force "C" (This unit, the 29th Punjabis, was the first to leave India for any theatre of war) leaves India for East Africa (see September 1st).


 

 

19th - S.S. "New York" (above), sunk by U-24 off Fastnet

MONDAY 24th AUGUST

DIPLOMACY

24th - Austria-Hungary severs diplomatic relations with Japan (see 25th).

Tuesday

25th - Japan severs diplomatic relations with Austria-Hungary (see 24th). Japan declares "State of War" with Austria-Hungary.

Friday

28th - Austro-Hungarian declaration of war received by Belgian Government (see 22nd).

FRANCE

26th - M. Messimy, French Minister for War (appointed June 14th, 1914) resigns (see 27th). M. Delcasse succeeds M. Doumergue as French Foreign Minister (appointed August 3rd, 1914).

27th - M. Millerand appointed French Minister for War (see 26th, and October 29th, 1915).

 

WESTERN FRONT

24th - British army retreats from Mons (see 23rd, and September 5th).

24th - Battle of Charleroi ends (see 21st).

24th - Battle of the Ardennes ends (see 22nd).

Tuesday

25th - Namur captured by German forces (see 21st, and November 21st, 1918.)

25th - Battle of the Meuse begins (see 28th).

25th - Battle of Malines begins (see 27th).

25th - Valenciennes taken by German forces (see November 3rd, 1918).

25th - Maubeuge invested by German forces (see September 7th).

25th - Battle of the Mortagne (Vosges) begins (see September 3rd).

25th - Mulhouse again retaken by German forces (see 19th, and November 17th, 1918)

Wednesday

26th - Louvain sacked by German troops.

26th - Battle of Le Cateau.

26th - Noyon taken by German forces (see September 21st).

26th - Longwy capitulates to German forces (see 20th).

26th - Cambrai occupied by German forces (see November 20th, 1917, and October 9th, 1918).

26th - Douai occupied by German forces (see October 17th, 1918).

26th - General Gallieni appointed Governor of Paris (see October 30th, 1915).

Thursday

27th - Battle of Malines ends (see 25th).

27th - Lille occupied by German cavalry (see September 5th).

27th - Mezieres occupied by German forces (see November 10th, 1918).

Friday

28th - Battle of the Meuse ends (see 25th).

Saturday

29th - Arras evacuated bv the French forces (see September 30th).

29th - First Battle of Guise begins (see 30th).

29th - Sedan taken by German forces (see November 6th. 1918).

Sunday

30th - Laon, La Fere, and Roye occupied by German forces (see March 17th, 1917, and October 13th, 1918).

30th - First Battle of Guise ends (see 29th, and November 4th, 1918).

AVIATION

25th - First use of aircraft for patrol purposes (over retreating British forces in France).

30th - First German aeroplane raid on Paris (see September 16th, 1918)

EASTERN FRONT

Battle of Tannenberg continues.

25th - First Battle of Krasnik (Poland) ends (see 23rd).

26th - First Battle of Lemberg (Galicia) begins (see 30th).

26th - Battle of Zamosc-Komarow begins (see September 2nd).

30th - First Battle of Lemberg (Galicia) ends (see 26th, and September 3rd).

SERBIAN FRONT

25th - Shabatz (see 12th) retaken by Serbian forces. Last Austrian forces recross the Drina (see 13th). End of First Austrian invasion of Serbia (see September 8th).

AVIATION

29th - German airship "Z.-5" brought down by gunfire at Mlawa (Poland).

 

WEST AFRICA

25th - Nigerian frontier of the Cameroons crossed by British forces. Affair of Tepe. Chad frontier crossed by French forces.

26th - German forces in Togoland capitulate to the Allied forces (see 8th, 13th and 31st).

27th - First attack on Mora (Cameroons) (see September 8th, 1915).

30th - First attack on Garua (Cameroons) (see April 18th, 1915). (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)

CONTRABAND CONTROL

25th - French Government issue new decree defining contraband (see 11th, and November 6th).

EMPIRE TROOP MOVEMENTS

24th - First units of Indian Expeditionary Force "A" leave Bombay for France (in first place for Egypt) (see September 26th).

CRUISER WARFARE

26th - Action between H.M.S. "Highflyer" and German armed merchant cruiser "Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse" (left Bremen on August 4th) off the Rio de Oro: latter sunk (see August 4).

NORTH SEA

28th – Battle of Heligoland. German light cruisers "Koln," "Mainz," and "Ariadne" (below - Cyberheritage/ Terry Phillips) sunk by British squadron. (link to British despatch, awards and casualties)

 

BELGIUM

27th - British Marines landed at Ostend, accompanied by R.N.A.S. unit.

BALTIC

26th - Naval action off the Aaland Islands. German cruiser "Magdeburg " destroyed by Russian squadron.

PACIFIC

30th – German Samoa occupied by New Zealand Expeditionary Force.

 

MONDAY 31st AUGUST

DIPLOMACY

31st - Franco-British Agreement defining provisional zones in Togoland concluded (see 26th, and December 27th, 1916).

WESTERN FRONT

31st - Amiens entered by German forces (see September 13th).

 

EASTERN FRONT

Battle of Zamosc-Komarow continues.

31st - Battle of Tannenberg ends (see 23rd).

 

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 46 ships of 67,000 tons gross (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

SEPTEMBER 1914

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

TUESDAY 1st SEPTEMBER

ALLIES

5th - British, French, and Russian Governments sign the "Pact of London." Decision not to make separate peace (see April 26th, October 19th, and November 30th, 1915).

FRANCE

2nd - French Government transferred from Paris to Bordeaux (see November 18th).

VATICAN

3rd - Benedict XV elected Pope (see August 20th and November 5th).

ALBANIA

3rd - Prince William of Wied leaves Albania (see October 4th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

1st - Lord Kitchener visits France to confer with the British Commander-in-Chief.

1st - Craonne taken by German forces (see May 4th, 1917). Soissons taken by German forces (see 13th).

3rd - Battle of the Mortagne ends (see August 25th).

4th - Battle of the Grand Couronne (Nancy) begins (see 12th).

5th - End of the Retreat from Mons (see August 24th, 1914, and November 11th, 1918).

5th - Battle of the Ourcq begins.

5th - German forces reach Claye, 10 miles from Paris (nearest point reached during the war).

5th - Reims taken by German forces (see 14th).

5th - Lille evacuated by German forces (see August 27th and October 12th).

6th - Battle of the Marne begins (French date) (see 9th and 10th).

EASTERN FRONT

2nd - Battle of Zamosc-Komarow ends (see August 26th).

3rd - Lemberg captured by Russian forces (see August 20th, 1914, and June 22nd, 1915).

5th - Battle of the Masurian Lakes begins (see 15th).

SERBIAN FRONT

6th - Serbian passage of the Save. Serbian operations in Syrmia begin (see 11th).

 

EAST AFRICA

1st - General J. Stewart takes over command of British forces in East Africa (see October 31st).

5th - German forces cross frontier of North Rhodesia. Defence of Abercorn begins (see 9th).

6th - Affair of Tsavo.

 

LAWS OF NAVAL WAR

3rd - French Government inform United States Government that they will observe "Declaration of London" subject to certain modifications.

4th - German Government agree to observe "Declaration of London" if other belligerents conform thereto, and issue their list of contraband.

EMPIRE TROOP MOVEMENTS

1st - First unit of Indian Expeditionary Force "C" arrives at Mombasa (see August 19th and December 31st).

U-BOAT WARFARE

5th - H.M.S. "Pathfinder" sunk by submarine in the North Sea (first British warship so destroyed).

MINE WARFARE

3rd - H.M.S. "Speedy" sunk by mine off the Humber.

PACIFIC

2nd - Japanese forces land in Shantung, China to attack German Tsingtau (see August 15th, September 23rd and November 7th).

MONDAY 7th SEPTEMBER

DIPLOMACY

10th - German and Austrian representatives expelled from Egypt (see November 1st).

BRITAIN

13th - British Government issue orders raising third New Army of six divisions (see 11th).

TURKEY

9th - Turkish Government announce abolition of "The Capitulations."

 

WESTERN FRONT

7th - Maubeuge capitulates to German forces (see August 25th, 1914 and November 8th, 1918).

9th - German retreat from the Marne begins (see 6th).

10th - Battle of the Marne ends (British date) (see 6th).

11th - British Government issue orders for the raising of the second New Army of six divisions (see August 21st and September 13th).

12th - Battle of the Grand Couronne (Nancy) ends (see 4th).

12th - Battle of the Aisne, 1914, begins (see 15th).

13th - Soissons (see 1st, and January 8th, 1915) and Amiens (see August 31st) reoccupied by French forces.

 

EASTERN FRONT

Battle of the Masurian Lakes continues.

7th - Battle of Tarnavka (Galicia) begins (see 9th).

8th - Second Battle of Lemberg begins (see 11th).

9th - Battle of Tarnavka ends (see 7th).

11th - Second Battle of Lemberg ends (see 8th). Austrian forces in Galicia retreat (see October 3rd).

SERBIAN FRONT

8th - Austrian forces begin second invasion of Serbia (see August 25th and December 15th). Battle of the Drina begins (see 17th).

10th - Semlin (Syrmia) occupied by Serbian forces (see 17th).

11th - Serbian advance in Syrmia abandoned (see 6th and 17th).

EGYPT

8th - General Sir John Maxwell takes over command of British forces in Egypt (see March 19th, 1916).

EAST AFRICA

9th - Affairs near Karonga (Nyasaland). First important fighting. (link to British despatch)

9th - Defence of Abercorn (Rhodesia) ends. German force retreats (see 5th).

PACIFIC

12th - Affair of Herbertshohe (German New Guinea) (see 11th and 17th).

 

 

Cameroons Coast

EMPIRE TROOP MOVEMENTS

9th - First units of Indian Expeditionary Force "A" arrive at Suez (see 19th).

CRUISER WARFARE

10th - German light cruiser "Emden" makes her first capture in the Indian Ocean, Greek collier "Pontoporos" (see 22nd, and October 28th).

WEST AFRICA (Plans - left and below)

7th - Naval operations off Duala, German Cameroons begin in preparation for attack by Allied military forces (see 27th). (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)

Duala and the Cameroons Estuary (Corbett, Vol 1, pp276)

 

PACIFIC

11th - Australian Expeditionary Force lands on the Bismarck Archipelago, German New Guinea.

MONDAY 14th SEPTEMBER

DIPLOMACY

19th - British and French Governments guarantee to Belgium the integrity of her colonies.

19th - Secret agreement for mutual support concluded between Russian and Rumanian Governments.

GERMANY

14th - General von Moltke resigns as Chief of the General Staff of the German Field Armies, and is succeeded by General von Falkenhayn (see August 2nd, 1914, and August 29th, 1916).

 

WESTERN FRONT

14th - Reims evacuated by German forces (see 5th and 19th).

15th - Battle of the Aisne, 1914, ends (see 12th).

19th - First bombardment of Reims Cathedral by German artillery (see 14th).

 

EASTERN FRONT

Retreat of Austrian forces in Galicia continues..

15th - Battle of the Masurian Lakes ends (see 5th).

15th - Czernowitz (Bukovina) taken by Russian forces (see October 22nd).

18th - General von Hindenburg appointed Commander-in-Chief of German Armies in Eastern Theatre (see August 23rd and November 27th).

SERBIAN FRONT

 Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia

17th - Serbian forces in Syrmia withdrawn. Semlin evacuated (see 8th).

17th - Battle of the Drina ends (see 8th).

 

SOUTH WEST AFRICA

19th – Luderitzbucht occupied by South African forces (first German territory to be entered by Union troops.)

SOUTH AFRICA

15th - Rebellion in South Africa begins (see December 1st and 28th)

PACIFIC

17th - German New Guinea and surrounding Colonies capitulate to Australian Expeditionary Force (see 21st, and October 11th).(plan - left)

 

 

SS "Cap Trafalgar"(Cyberheritage/ Terry Phillips)

 

German New Guinea, with inset of Rabaul (Corbett, Vol 1, pp286)

EMPIRE TROOP MOVEMENTS

19th - First units of Indian Expeditionary Force "A" leave Egypt for Marseilles (see 9th).

CRUISER WARFARE

14th - Action between British armed merchant cruiser "Carmania" and German armed merchant cruiser "Cap Trafalgar" (left) in the South Atlantic: latter sunk. (link to British despatch, awards and casualties)

ADRIATIC

19th - Cattaro bombarded by French squadron.

TURKEY

17th - British Naval Mission leaves Turkey.

17th - Admiral Souchon, Imperial German navy, assumes control of Turkish navy.

EAST AFRICA

20th - H.M.S. "Pegasus" sunk by German light cruiser "Konigsberg" at Zanzibar (see October 31st, 1914, and July 11th, 1915).

MONDAY 21st SEPTEMBER

 

WESTERN FRONT

21st - Noyon retaken by French forces (see 25th, and August 26th).

22nd - First Battle of Picardy begins (see 26th).

24th - Peronne taken by German forces (see March 18th, 1917).

25th - Noyon retaken by German forces (see 21st, and March 18th, 1917.

26th - First Battle of Picardy ends (see 22nd).

26th - Bapaume occupied by German forces (see March 17th, 1917).

27th - Siege of Antwerp begins (see October 10th).

27th - First Battle of Artois begins (see October 12th).

AVIATION

22nd - First use of wireless telegraphy from aeroplane to artillery (by British Royal Flying Corps)

EASTERN FRONT

Retreat of Austrian forces in Galicia continues..

21st - Jaroslaw (Galicia) taken by Russian forces (see May 14th, 1915).

24th - Przemysl isolated by Russian forces. First siege begins (see October 9th).

24th - Russian forces begin first invasion of North Hungary (see October 8th).

25th - Actions on the Niemen begin (see 29th).

SERBIAN FRONT

 Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia continues.

WEST AFRICA

27th - Duala (Cameroons) captured by Allied forces (26th/27th) (see 7th). (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)

 

HMS "Cressy" (Cyberheritage/ Terry Phillips)

 

S.M.S. "U.-9"(Photo Ships)

 

PACIFIC

21st - German armed forces in New Guinea surrender to the Australian Expeditionary Force (see 17th, and October 11th).

 

CONTRABAND CONTROL

21st - British Proclamation issued adding to list of contraband (see August 4th and December 23rd).

EMPIRE TROOP MOVEMENTS

26th - First units of Indian Expeditionary Force "A" land at Marseilles (see 19th, and October 19th).

CRUISER WARFARE

22nd - German light cruiser "Emden" bombards Madras (see 10th, and October 28th).

U-BOAT WARFARE

22nd - H.M.S. "Aboukir," "Hogue," and "Cressy" (left) sunk by German submarine "U.-9" (left)

NAVAL AVIATION

22nd - First British air raid on Germany: Dusseldorf and Cologne airship sheds attacked (see October 8th). (link to British despatch)

PACIFIC

22nd - Admiral von Spee's squadron bombards Papeete in Tahiti (see August 6th and November 1st).

23rd - British force joins Japanese army before Tsingtau. Force landed September 22nd; in action September 24th (see 2nd, and November 7th). (link to British despatch)

MONDAY 28th SEPTEMBER

 

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Siege of Antwerp.

First Battle of Artois.

28th - Malines taken by German forces.

30th - Arras reoccupied by French forces (see August 29th).

AVIATION

28th - Distinctive markings on German aircraft first reported (see November 12th).

EASTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Retreat of Austrian forces in Galicia..

First siege of Przemysl by Russian forces.

First Russian invasion of North Hungary.

29th - German offensive on the Niemen abandoned (see 25th).

SERBIAN FRONT

 Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia continues.

MESOPOTAMIA

28th - Lieut.-General Sir A. Barrett appointed Commander-designate of Indian Expeditionary Force "D" for Mesopotamia (see November 13th).

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 37 ships of 99,000 tons gross (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

OCTOBER 1914

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

THURSDAY 1st OCTOBER

ALBANIA

4th - Provisional Government under Essad Pasha set up in Albania at Durazzo (see February 24th, 1916).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Siege of Antwerp.

First Battle of Artois.

2nd - Termonde (Belgium) taken by German forces.

3rd - British army begins to leave the Aisne and to move northwards (see 19th).

3rd - Ypres occupied by German cavalry (see 13th).

4th - Lens and Bailleul occupied by German forces (see 14th, and September 3rd, 1918, and August 30th, 1918).

EASTERN FRONT

Continuing:

First siege of Przemysl by Russian forces.

First Russian invasion of North Hungary.

3rd - Retreat of Austro-Hungarian forces in Galicia ends (see September 11th).

3rd - Maramaros-Sziget taken by Russian forces (see 7th).

4th - Austro-Hungarian counter-offensive in Galicia begins (see 3rd).

SERBIAN FRONT

 Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia continues.

PALESTINE FRONT

2nd - Indian Expeditionary Force "E" formed in Egypt from details of  Indian Expeditionary Force "A" (see August 24th, 1914, and March 25th, 1915).

 

EMPIRE TROOP MOVEMENTS

3rd - First contingents of Canadian and Newfoundland Expeditionary Forces leave for England (see 15th).

MINE WARFARE

3rd - Minelaying in the open sea, between the Goodwins and Ostend, commenced by British (see August 5th).

BELGIUM

3rd - First units of British Royal Naval Division, Marine Brigade, arrive at Antwerp (3rd/4th).

MONDAY 5th OCTOBER

BELGIUM

7th - Belgian Government transferred from Antwerp to Ostend (see August 17th and October 12th and 13th).

RUMANIA

10th - King Charles of Rumania dies, and is succeeded by his son Ferdinand.

 

WESTERN FRONT

First Battle of Artois continues.

7th - Evacuation of Antwerp begun.

8th - General Foch appointed to command Allied forces (less Belgians) defending the Flanders coast (see May 15th, 1917).

9th - Merville, Estaires, Armentieres, and Hazebrouck taken by German forces (see 10th, 11th and 17th).

9th (date approximate) - Menin occupied by German forces (see October 15th, 1918).

9th - Last forts of Antwerp taken by German forces (see 10th, and September 27th).

10th - Antwerp capitulates to German forces (see 9th, and September 27th, 1914, and November 19th, 1918).

10th - Hazebrouck and Estaires captured by British forces (see 9th).

10th - Battle of La Bassée begins (see November 2nd).

11th - Merville retaken by British forces (see 9th, and April 11th, 1918).

AVIATION

8th - Second British air raid on Germany (Dusseldorf and Cologne airship sheds attacked) (see September 22nd).

EASTERN FRONT

7th - Maramaros-Sziget retaken by Austrian forces (see 3rd).

8th - First Russian invasion of North Hungary ends (see September 24th and November 15th).

9th - First German offensive against Warsaw. Battles of Warsaw and Ivangorod begin (see 19th and 20th).

9th - Przemysl relieved by advancing Austrian forces (see 4th). End of First siege (see September 24th and November 10th).

SERBIAN FRONT

Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia continues.

 

U-BOAT WARFARE

11th - Russian cruiser "Pallada" sunk by German submarine off Hango in the Baltic.

BELGIUM

6th - Units of British 7th Division disembark at Ostend and Zeebrugge to co-operate with Belgian army (see 12th). (link to British despatch)

PANAMA CANAL

10th - Protocol signed by United States of America and Panama as to use of Panama Canal by ships of belligerent Powers.

PACIFIC

7th - Japanese naval forces occupy Yap Island (German).

11th - German gunboat "Komet" (below as HMAS "Una" - Australian War Memorial) captured by H.M.A.S. "Nusa" near Talassia, Neu Pommern. Last act of hostilities in Australasian waters. Also last episode in conquest of German Pacific possessions.

 

 

MONDAY 12th OCTOBER

BELGIUM

13th - Belgian Government set up at Havre (see 7th, and November 21st, 1918).

ITALY

16th - Marquis di San Giuliano, Italian Foreign Minister (appointed March 24th, 1914) dies (see November 3rd).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of La Bassée continues.

12th - Battle of Messines, 1914, begins (see November 2nd).

12th - First Battle of Artois ends (see September 27th).

12th - Ostend and Zeebrugge evacuated by Belgian forces (see 6th and 15th).

12th - Lille capitulates to German forces (see September 5th, 1914, and October 17th, 1918).

12th - Ghent evacuated by Belgian forces and occupied by German forces (see November 10th, 1918).

13th - Battle of Armentieres begins (see November 2nd).

13th - Ypres reoccupied by Allied forces retreating from Ghent (see 3rd and 19th).

14th - Bailleul occupied by British forces (see 4th, and April 15th, 1918).

14th - Bruges occupied by German forces (see October 19th, 1918).

15th - Belgian coast-line reached by German forces (see October 20th, 1918).

15th - Zeebrugge and Ostend occupied by German forces (see 12th, and October 17th and 19th, 1918).

16th - Battle of the Yser begins (Belgian date) (see November 10th).

17th - Armentieres recaptured by Allied Forces (see 9th, and April 11th, 1918).

18th - Roulers taken by German forces (see October 14th, 1918).

 

EASTERN FRONT

Battles of Warsaw and Ivangorod continues.

13th - Battle of Chyrow (Galicia) begins (see November 2nd).

SERBIAN FRONT

Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia continues.

WEST AFRICA

14th - Yabasi (Cameroons) captured by Allied forces.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operations in the Baltic (Corbett, Vol 3, pp61)

 

HM S/M "E.-1" (Navy Photos)

EMPIRE TROOP MOVEMENTS

15th - First units of Canadian and Newfoundland Expeditionary Forces land in England (see 3rd, and February 9th, 1915).

16th - Indian Expeditionary Force "B" leaves India for East Africa (see 31st).

16th - First units of Indian Expeditionary Force "D" leave India for the Persian Gulf (see 23rd).

16th - New Zealand Expeditionary Force leaves New Zealand for France (see December 1st).

17th - First units of Australian Imperial Force embark for France (see December 1st).

U-BOAT WARFARE

13th - First appearance of a German submarine on the Southampton-Havre troop-transport route reported.

15th - H.M.S. "Hawke" sunk by German submarine in North Sea.

17th - German submarines attempt raid on Scapa Flow (see 18th).

18th - Grand Fleet withdraws from Scapa Flow to West of Scotland (see 17th, and November 3rd).

NORTH SEA

17th - Action by H.M.S. "Undaunted" and destroyers with four German destroyers off Dutch coast; latter all sunk.

BELGIAN COAST

 

18th - First bombardment of Ostend by British warships (see 15th). (for Belgium coast, 1914-18, link to British despatches, awards and casualties)

BALTIC (plan - left)

17th - First British submarines, "E.-l" (left) and "E.-9", enter the Baltic.

PACIFIC

18th - Japanese light cruiser "Takachiho" sunk by German destroyer off Tsingtau.

MONDAY 19th OCTOBER

BRITAIN

25th - General Sir C. Douglas, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, Great Britain (appointed April 6, 1914), dies (see 26th).

UNITED STATES

22nd - United States Government issue Circular Note to belligerent Governments stating that they will insist on existing rules of International Law (see July 28th, 1916).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battle of La Bassée.

Battle of Messines.

Battle of Armentieres.

Battle of the Yser.

19th - Battles of Ypres, 1914, begin (see 31st, and November 22nd).

19th - Transfer of British army from the Aisne to Flanders completed (see 3rd).

19th - First Indian units reach the Flanders front (see September 26th, and November 10th, 1915).

21st - Battle of Langemarck, 1914 (Ypres) begins (see 24th).

24th - Battle of Langemarck, 1914 (Ypres), ends (see 21st).

EASTERN FRONT

Battle of Chyrow (Galicia) continues.

19th - Battle of Warsaw ends (see 9th).

20th - Battle of Ivangorod ends (see 9th).

22nd - Czernowitz (Bukovina) reoccupied by Austrian forces (see 28th, and September 15th).

SERBIAN FRONT

Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia continues.

 

EMPIRE TROOP MOVEMENTS

23rd - Advanced troops of Indian Expeditionary Force "D" arrive at the Bahrein Islands, Persian Gulf (see 16th and November 6th).

U-BOAT WARFARE

20th - First merchant vessel sunk by German submarine in North Sea, British S.S. "Glitra" (see February 19th and March 13th and 28th, 1915).

 

MONDAY 26th OCTOBER

DIPLOMACY

29th - Turkey commences hostilities against Russia (see July 31st, and November 2nd and 5th).

30th - Allied Governments present ultimatum to Turkey (see 29th).

30th - Great Britain and France sever diplomatic relations with Turkey. British and French Ambassadors demand passports (see 31st, and November 5th).

31st - British Government issue orders for hostilities to commence against Turkey (see 30th, and November 1st and 5th).

31st - Lord Kitchener sends to Sherif of Mecca conditional guarantee of Arabian independence (see July 14th, 1915).

BRITAIN

26th - General Sir J. Wolfe Murray appointed Chief of the Imperial General Staff, Great Britain (see 25th, and September 25th, 1915).

ITALY

30th - Italian Cabinet resign. New Cabinet formed. Signor Salandra remains Premier (previously appointed March 24th, 1914) (see May 13th, 1915).

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battle of La Bassée.

Battle of Messines.

Battle of Armentieres.

Battle of the Yser.

Battles of Ypres, 1914:

29th - Battle of Gheluvelt (Ypres) begins (see 31st).

31st - Critical day of Battles of Ypres, 1914: British line broken and restored (see 19th, and November 11th). Battle of Gheluvelt ends (see 29th).

 

EASTERN FRONT

Battle of Chyrow (Galicia) continues.

28th - Czernowitz (Bukovina) reoccupied by Russian forces (see 22nd, and February 17th, 1915).

30th - Stanislau (Galicia) taken by Russian forces (see February 19th, 1915).

SERBIAN FRONT

Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia continues:

30th - Serbian forces begin retreat from the line of the Drina (see November 30th).

 

WEST AFRICA

26th - German forces begin an unprovoked invasion of Angola (Portuguese West Africa) (see December 4th).

26th - Edea (Cameroons) occupied by French forces. (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)

EAST AFRICA

31st - General Stewart succeeded in command of British forces in East Africa by General Aitken (see September 1st and December 4th).

 

 

Delta of the Rufigi River

 


HMS "Audacious" (Maritime Quest)

CONTRABAND CONTROL

29th - New British Order in Council revises list of contraband and modifies "Declaration of London" of 1909 (see August 20th, 1914, and July 7th, 1916).

ROYAL NAVY

29th - Prince Louis of Battenberg, First Sea Lord, Great Britain, appointed December 9th, 1912, resigns (see 30th).

30th - Lord Fisher appointed First Sea Lord, Great Britain (see 29th, and May 15th, 1915).

EMPIRE TROOP MOVEMENTS

31st - First units of Indian Expeditionary Force "B" arrive at Mombasa (see 16th, and December 31st).

CRUISER WARFARE

28th - German cruiser "Emden" raids Penang Roads and sinks Russian cruiser "Zhemchug" (see September 10th and November 9th).

31st - German light cruiser "Konigsberg" located in Rufiji River (see July 11, 1915). (plan - left)

U-BOAT WARFARE

31st - H.M.S. "Hermes" sunk by German submarine in Straits of Dover.

MINE WARFARE

27th - H.M.S. "Audacious" (left, sinking) sunk by mine off coast of Donegal.

NORTH SEA

30th - British hospital ship "Rohilla" wrecked off Whitby.

BLACK SEA

29th - Turkish warships bombard Odessa, Sevastopol, and Theodosia.


MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 36 ships of 92,000 tons gross (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

 

NOVEMBER 1914

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

SUNDAY 1st NOVEMBER

DIPLOMACY

1st - Great Britain and Turkey commence hostilities (see 5th, and October 30th and 31st).

EGYPT

1st - Martial law proclaimed in Egypt (see September 10th and December 18th).

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battle of La Bassée.

Battle of Armentieres.

Battle of the Yser.

Battles of Ypres, 1914.

1st - Messines taken by German forces (see June 7th, 1917).

EASTERN FRONT

Battle of Chyrow (Galicia) continues.

SERBIAN FRONT

Continuing:

Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia.

Serbian retreat from the line of the Drina.

 

 

HMS "Good Hope"(Photo Ships)

PACIFIC

1st – Battle of Coronel. H.M.S. "Good Hope" (left) and "Monmouth" sunk by Admiral von Spee's Squadron (see September 22nd and December 8th). (link to battle summary and casualties)

MONDAY 2nd NOVEMBER

DIPLOMACY

2nd - Russia declares war on Turkey (see October 29th).

2nd - "State of War" commences between Serbia and Turkey.

5th - Great Britain and France formally declare war on Turkey (see 1st and 11th, and October 31st).

5th - Great Britain annexes Cyprus.

6th - Turkey severs diplomatic relations with Belgium.

BRITAIN

4th - Moratorium in Great Britain ends (see August 2nd).

BELGIUM

5th - Belgian Government reject Papal mediation (see July 30th, 1915).

ITALY

3rd - Baron Sonnino appointed Italian Foreign Minister (see October 16th and 30th, 1914, and May 13th, 1915).

INDIA

2nd - Government of India announce immunity of the Mussulman Holy Places during hostilities with Turkey.

 

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battle of the Yser

Battles of Ypres, 1914

2nd - Battles of Messines and Armentieres end (see October 12th and 13th).

2nd - Battle of La Bassée ends (see October 10th).

 

 

EASTERN FRONT

2nd - Battle of Chyrow ends (see October 13th).

SERBIAN FRONT

Continuing:

Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia.

Serbian retreat from the line of the Drina.

CAUCASUS FRONT

4th - Russian forces cross frontier of Turkey-in-Asia and seize Azap (Armenia).

6th - Keupri-Keui (Armenia) taken by Russian forces (see 14th).

 

Lower Mesopotamia to the Head of the Persian Gulf (Corbett, Vol 1, pp394)

 

EAST AFRICA

2nd - British force begins attack on Tanga (German East Africa) (see 5th).

3rd - Northern frontier of German East Africa first crossed by British troops. (Affair of Longido.) (See August 15th.)

5th - Attack on Tanga ends. British force repulsed (see 2nd, and Julv 7th, 1916).

 CHINA

7th - Tsingtau capitulates to Japanese forces (see September 2nd and 23rd, 1914, and August 6th, 1915). (link to British despatch)

 


The Dardanelles,
(Corbett, Vol 2, Plan No 4 (9.5Mb))

CONTRABAND CONTROL

6th - French Government issue declaration modifying list of contraband (see August 25th, 1914, and January 3rd, 1915).

EMPIRE TROOP MOVEMENTS

2nd - First units of Indian Expeditionary Force "F" leave India for Egypt (see 16th).

6th - Advanced troops of Indian Expeditionary Force "D" effect landing in Mesopotamia at Fao (see 22nd, and October 23rd). (plan - left)

CRUISER WARFARE

4th - German cruiser "Karlsruhe" sunk in the Atlantic by internal explosion (see August 6th).

U-BOAT WARFARE

3rd - Grand Fleet ordered back to Scapa Flow (see October 18th, 1914, and November 21st, 1918).

MINE WARFARE

4th - German cruiser "Yorck" sunk by mine off the German coast.

NORTH SEA

2nd - British Admiralty declare the North Sea a military zone.

BRITISH COASTAL RAID

3rd - First German naval raid on British coast near Gorleston and Yarmouth.

DARDANELLES (plan - left and below)

3rd - Allied squadrons bombard forts at entrance of the Dardanelles (see December 13th).

6th - British submarine "B.-11" proceeds two miles up the Dardanelles. First warship to enter Straits. (See December 13th). (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)

Dardanelles Approaches

PACIFIC

2nd - Austrian cruiser "Kaiserin Elizabeth" sunk in Tsingtau harbour.

MONDAY 9th NOVEMBER

TURKEY

11th - The Sheikh ul Islam issues Fatwa declaring Jehad (Holy War) against all the Allies (see 2nd, 5th, and 14th).

14th - Sultan of Turkey as Khalif proclaims Jehad against those making war on Turkey or her allies (see 11th).

JAPAN

14th - Japanese Cabinet decide against despatch of troops or warships to Europe (see February 8th, 1916, and April 17th, 1917).

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of Ypres, 1914 continues.

10th - Battle of the Yser ends (French date) (see October 16th).

10th - Dixmude stormed by German forces (see September 29th, 1918).

11th - Battle of Nonneboschen (Ypres). Attack by German Guard repulsed (see 22nd, and October 19th and 31st).

14th - Field-Marshal Earl Roberts dies in France.

AVIATION

12th - Orders issued for all British aeroplanes on Western front to bear distinguishing marks (see September 28th).

 

EASTERN FRONT

10th - Przemysl again isolated by Russian forces (see October 9th). Second Siege begins (see March 22nd, 1915).

11th (date approximate) - Memel (East Prussia) occupied by Russian forces (see February 17th, 1915).

15th - Battle of Cracow begins (see December 2nd).

15th - Second Russian invasion of North Hungary begins (see October 8th and December 12th).

SERBIAN FRONT

Continuing:

Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia.

Serbian retreat from the line of the Drina.

 

 

 

 

CAUCASUS FRONT

14th - Keupri-Keui (Armenia) retaken by Turkish forces (see 6th).

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

13th - Lieut.-General Sir A. Barrett takes over command of Indian Expeditionary Force "D" in Mesopotamia (see September 28th, 1914, and April 9th, 1915).

15th - Affair of Saihan.

 

 
Cocos Islands: Action between "Sydney" and "Emden" (Corbett, Vol 1, pp394)

LAWS OF NAVAL WAR

13th - Dutch Government protest against modifications of the Declaration of London (see October 29th).

NAVAL PRIZES

9th - British and French Governments conclude convention as to naval "prizes" (see August 6th, 1914, and January 15th, 1917).

CRUISER WARFARE

9th - German cruiser "Emden" (below - Great War) destroyed by H.M.A.S. "Sydney" at the Cocos Islands (see October 28th). (link to British despatch, awards and casualties) (plan - left)

 

9th - German gunboat "Geier" interned at Honolulu.

U-BOAT WARFARE

11th - H.M.S. "Niger" sunk by German submarine off Deal.

RED SEA

10th - British force storms Sheikh Said (Southern Arabia) and destroys the defences (10th/11th)

 

MONDAY 16th NOVEMBER

DIPLOMACY

20th - British, Belgian, and French Governments withdraw proposal for neutralisation of African free trade zone in view of altered situation (see August 22nd).

FRANCE

18th - Re-transfer of French Government from Bordeaux to Paris begins (see September 2nd).

 

WESTERN FRONT

22nd - Battles of Ypres, 1914, end (see October 19th, 31st, and November 11th, 1914, and April 22nd, 1915).

 

EASTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl.

Battle of Cracow.

Second Russian invasion of North Hungary.

16th - Second German offensive against Warsaw. Battle of Lodz begins (see December 15th).

SERBIAN FRONT

Continuing:

Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia.

Serbian retreat from the line of the Drina.

CAUCASUS FRONT

22nd - Keupri-Keui (Armenia) again taken by Russian forces (see 14th, and December 17th).

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

17th - Affair of Sahil

EAST AFRICA

22nd - War Office assume control of the British operations in East Africa.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lower Mesopotamia

EMPIRE TROOP MOVEMENTS

16th - First units of Indian Expeditionary Force "F" land in Egypt (see 2nd, and March 25th, 1915).

MINE WARFARE

17th - German cruiser "Friedrich Karl" sunk by mine in the Baltic.

NAVAL AVIATION

21st - British naval air raid on Friedrichshaven.

BALTIC

17th - Libau (Baltic) bombarded by German squadron (see August 2nd).

BLACK SEA

17th – Trebizond bombarded by Russian squadron (see April 6th, 1916).

MESOPOTAMIA (Plans - left and below)

22nd - Basra occupied by British forces (see 6th). Formal occupation took place on the 23rd. (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties) 

 

Operations near Basra (Corbett, Vol 1, pp388)

MONDAY 23rd NOVEMBER

PORTUGAL

23rd - Portuguese Government announce prospective co-operation of Portugal with Great Britain (see August 8th, 1916).

WESTERN FRONT

 

EASTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl.

Battle of Cracow.

Second Russian invasion of North Hungary.

Battle of Lodz.

27th - General von Hindenburg promoted Field-Marshal (see September 18th, 1914, and August 29th, 1916).

SERBIAN FRONT

Continuing:

Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia .

Serbian retreat from the line of the Drina.

INDIA

28th - Affair of Miranshah (North-West Frontier of India) (28th/29th). (First outbreak on North-West Frontier caused by German intrigues.)

CONTRABAND CONTROL

23rd - Netherlands Overseas Trust formed (see June 3rd, 1915).

ROYAL NAVY

26th - H.M.S. "Bulwark" (below in 1904 - Maritime Quest) destroyed by internal explosion in Sheerness harbour.

MONDAY 30th NOVEMBER

 

WESTERN FRONT

 

EASTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl.

Battle of Cracow.

Second Russian invasion of North Hungary.

Battle of Lodz.

30th - Battle of Lowicz-Sanniki begins (see December 17th).

SERBIAN FRONT

Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia continues:

30th - Belgrade evacuated by retreating Serbian forces (see October 30th).

 

 MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 20 ships of 20,000 tons gross (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

DECEMBER 1914

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

TUESDAY 1st DECEMBER

DIPLOMACY

3rd - British Government agree to Japanese request that Australia should not occupy German islands north of the Equator (see 16th).

5th - Entente demarche in Athens, Sofia, and Bukharest to secure help for Serbia (see 6th, and January 24th, 1915). Serbian Government declare that Serbia will never make peace without Allied consent.

6th - Rumanian Government decline to guarantee Greece against German attack (see 5th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

 

EASTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl.

Second Russian invasion of North Hungary.

Battle of Lodz.

Battle of Lowicz-Sanniki.

1st - Battle of Limanova-Lapanov begins (see 17th).

2nd - Battle of Cracow ends (see November 15th).

SERBIAN FRONT

Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia continues:

2nd - Austrian forces cross the Danube and occupy Belgrade (see 15th, and November 30th).

3rd - Battle of the Kolubara (Serbia) begins (see 6th).

6th - Battle of the Kolubara ends. Austrian forces routed by the Serbians and driven northwards (see 3rd).

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

4th - First action of Qurna begins (see 8th). (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties) 

WEST AFRICA

4th - Portuguese Expeditionary Force leaves Lisbon for Angola (see October 26th, 1914, and August 8th, 1916).

SOUTH AFRICA

1st - General de Wet, the leader of South African rebellion, captured by Union troops (see 28th, and September 15th).

EAST AFRICA

4th - General Wapshare succeeds General Aitken in command of the British forces in East Africa: latter recalled (see October 31st and November 5th, 1914, and April 16th, 1915).

 

EMPIRE TROOP MOVEMENTS

1st - First units of Australian and New Zealand Expeditionary Forces arrive at Suez (see October 10th and 17th, 1914, and February 20th and April 25th, 1915).

 

MONDAY 7th DECEMBER

         

PORTUGAL

11th - Dr. B. L. Machado Guimaraes, Portuguese Premier, resigns (appointed June 23rd, 1914) (see 12th).

12th - Senhor V. H. d'Azevedo Coutinho appointed Portuguese Premier (see 11th, and January 25th, 1915).

VATICAN

7th - British Envoy (Sir H. Howard) appointed to the Vatican.

TURKEY

10th - Field-Marshal von der Goltz leaves Germany to take over control of the Turkish Army (see November 24th. 1910, and April 19th, 1916).

 

WESTERN FRONT

 

EASTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl.

Battle of Lodz.

Battle of Lowicz-Sanniki.

Battle of Limanova-Lapanov.

12th - Second Russian invasion of North Hungary ends (see November 15th).

SERBIAN FRONT

Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia continues.

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

8th - First action of Qurna ends (see 4th).

9th - Qurna occupied by British forces (see 8th).(link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties) 

 

Battle of the Falklands
(Corbett, Vol 1, pp419, 420, 423, 424, 430)


Position, 12.51pm

Position, 1.30pm

Main Action 4.17-4.24pm

Main Action 4.44-5.01pm

"Kent" against "Nürnberg", 5.35-6.36pm

SOUTH ATLANTIC

8th - Battle of the Falklands. Admiral von Spee's squadron destroyed. "Scharnhorst," (below - Photo Ships) "Gneisenau," "Leipzig," and "Nürnberg" sunk. Admiral von Spee killed (see November 1st). "Dresden" escapes (see March 14th. 1915). (link to British despatch, awards and casualties)

 

DARDANELLES

13th - Turkish battleship "Messoudieh" sunk by British submarine "B 11" (see November 6th). (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)

BLACK SEA

10th - Batum, Georgia bombarded by the "Goeben" and "Breslau."

MONDAY 14th DECEMBER

DIPLOMACY

16th - Japanese Foreign Minister declares Japan will not give up German islands occupied north of the Equator (see 3rd, and February 14th, 1917).

18th - Meeting of Scandinavian Kings at Malmo.

18th - British Protectorate over Egypt proclaimed.

19th - Great Britain declares adherence to Franco-Moorish Treaty of 1912.

19th - British Government declare Khedive Abbas Hilmi deposed, and proclaim Prince Hussein Kamel Pasha as Sultan of Egypt (see October 9th, 1917).

 

WESTERN FRONT

14th - Allied demonstrations on Flanders front begin. Attack on Wytschaete.

20th - First Battle of Champagne begins (see March 17th, 1915).

20th - British defence of Givenchy, 1914 (20th/21st).

AVIATION

15th - German airship sighted off East Coast of England (first appearance of hostile aircraft in vicinity of British Isles (see 21st)

EASTERN FRONT

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl continues.

15th - Battle of Lodz ends (see November 16th).

17th - Battle of Lowicz-Sanniki ends (see November 30th).

17th - Battle of Limanova-Lapanov ends (see 1st).

19th - Battle of the Rawka-Bzura begins. (This battle had no definite end; operations subsided into trench warfare.)

SERBIAN FRONT

15th - Belgrade occupied by Serbian forces (see 2nd). End of Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia (see October 6th and 9th, 1915).

CAUCASUS FRONT

17th - Turkish Offensive in the Caucasus begins. Keupri-Keui (Armenia) retaken (see 29th, November 22nd, 1914, and January 17th, 1916).

 

 

  The Raid on the Yorkshire Coast (Corbett, Vol 2, Plan No 2 (6.4Mb))


Strategical Plan of the Raid on the Yorkshire Coast (Corbett, Vol 2, pp48)

CRUISER WARFARE

14th - German armed merchant cruiser "Cormoran" (ex-Russian S.S. "Ryasan") interned at Guam.


BRITISH COASTAL RAID (Plans - left and below)

16th - Scarborough and Hartlepool, East coast of England, bombarded by German battle cruiser squadron. (link to British despatch, awards and casualties, including minesweeping operations) 


Bombardment of Hartlepool (Corbett, Vol 2, pp34)

MONDAY 21st DECEMBER

 

 

 

WESTERN FRONT

First Battle of Champagne continues.

26th - Garibaldi's Italian Foreign Legion in action for first time on French front.

AVIATION

21st - First German air raid on England. Aeroplane drops bombs in sea near Dover (see 24th, January 19th, 1915, and July 20th and August 5th, 1918).

24th - Second air raid on England (see 21st). First bomb dropped on English soil (near Dover).

EASTERN FRONT

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl continues..

EAST AFRICA

21st - Jasin occupied by British forces (see January 18th and 19th, 1915).

 

CONTRABAND CONTROL

23rd - British Proclamation issued containing revised list of contraband (see September 21st, 1914, and March 11th, 1915).

NAVAL AVIATION

25th - British seaplane raid on Cuxhaven.

ADRIATIC

26th - Italian force lands at Valona (Albania); Italy notifies Austria of provisional occupation (see May 29th, 1915).

 

MONDAY 28th DECEMBER

DIPLOMACY

30th - Russian Commander-in-Chief (Grand Duke Nicholas) suggests a British expedition against the Turks to ease Russian situation in the Caucasus (see January 13th, 1915).

 

WESTERN FRONT

First Battle of Champagne continues.

 

EASTERN FRONT

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl continues.

CAUCASUS FRONT

29th - Battle of Sarikamish begins (see 17th, and January 2nd, 1915).

SOUTH AFRICA

28th - End of organised rebellion in South Africa (see September 15th, 1914, and January 11th, 1915).

EAST AFRICA

31st - Indian Expeditionary Force "C" (East Africa) absorbed into Indian Expeditionary Force "B" (see September 1st and October 31st).

CONTRABAND CONTROL

29th - British Government send memorandum to United States Government in defence of British blockade policy.


MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 26 ships of 49,000 tons gross. Total since outbreak of war - 165 ships of 324,000 tons gross (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

 

 

 

 

JANUARY 1915

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

FRIDAY 1st JANUARY

 

WESTERN FRONT

First Battle of Champagne continues.

 

 

EASTERN FRONT

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl continues.

 

 

CAUCASUS FRONT

2nd - Battle of Sarikamish ends (see December 29th, 1914, and April 4th, 1918).

2nd - Urmia (North Persia) evacuated by Russian forces (This city was occupied before the outbreak of the War.) (see April 16th).

CONTRABAND CONTROL

3rd - French Government issue further revised list of contraband (see November 6th, 1914).

U-BOAT WARFARE

1st - H.M.S. "Formidable" (below - Maritime Quest) sunk by German submarine in English Channel.

 

MONDAY 4th JANUARY

BRITAIN

4th - London Stock Exchange reopens (see July 31st, 1914).

 

WESTERN FRONT

First Battle of Champagne continues.

8th - Battle of Soissons begins (see 14th).

 

EASTERN FRONT

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl continues.

 

CAUCASUS FRONT

5th - Tabriz (North Persia) evacuated by Russian forces (This city was occupied before the outbreak of the War.) (see 8th and 30th).

8th - Tabriz (North Persia) occupied by Turkish forces (see 5th and 30th).

8th - Battle of Kara Urgan (Caucasus) begins (see 13th).

ARABIA

10th - British defence of Muscat (Eastern Arabia) (10th/11th).

EAST AFRICA

5th - German attack on Edea (Cameroons) repulsed by French garrison. (link to British despatches)

MERCHANT SHIPPING

6th - German S.S. "Dacia" (interned in the United States) sold to Mr. Breitung, an American citizen (see February 11th).

 

MONDAY 11th JANUARY

DIPLOMACY

11th - Rumanian Government negotiate loan of £5,000,000 in Great Britain.

15th - Existence of secret agreement for mutual support between Italy and Rumania announced by respective Governments.

AUSTRO-HUNGARY

13th - Baron Burian succeeds Count Berehtold (appointed February 9th, 1912) as Austro-Hungarian Minister for Foreign Affairs (see December 22nd, 1910).

 

WESTERN FRONT

First Battle of Champagne continues.

14th - Battle of Soissons ends (see 8th).

 

EASTERN FRONT

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl continues.

 

CAUCASUS FRONT

13th - Battle of Kara Urgan ends (see 8th).

SOUTH WEST AFRICA

14th - Swakopmund (German South-West Africa) occupied by South African forces.

SOUTH AFRICA

11th - Last rebels in the Transvaal (South Africa) captured (see December 28th, 1914).

DARDANELLES (plan - below)

13th - British War Council resolve that the Admiralty should prepare for a naval expedition in February against the Dardanelles (see 28th, and December 30th, 1914). (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)


The Approaches to the Dardanelles (Corbett, Vol 2, pp123)

 

EAST AFRICA

12th - Mafia Island (German East Africa) seized by a British force.

MONDAY 18th JANUARY

DIPLOMACY

24th - British Government offer Greek Government concessions in Asia Minor in return for help to Serbia (see 25th and 29th, April 12th, 1915, and December 5th, 1914).

GERMANY

21st - Lieut.-General von Falkenhayn (appointed in 1906) succeeded as German Minister for War by Lieut.-General Wild von Hohenborn (see October 30th, 1916). General von Falkenhayn remains Chief of the General Staff (see August 29th, 1916).

WESTERN FRONT

First Battle of Champagne continues.

24th - Lieut.-General Sir A. J. Murray resigns as Chief of the General Staff, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 25th, and August 4th, 1914). Lieut.-General Sir W. Robertson resigns as Quartermaster-General, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 25th and 27th, and August 4th, 1914).

AVIATION

19th - First airship raid on England (see December 21st, 1914, and August 5th, 1918).

EASTERN FRONT

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl continues.

AVIATION

24th - German airship "P.L.-19" brought down near Libau.

SOUTH AFRICA

23rd - Defence of Upington (23rd/24th).

EAST AFRICA

18th - German attack on Jasin begins (see 19th).

19th - Jasin captured by German forces (see 18th, and December 21st, 1914).

 

 
The Battle of the Dogger Bank, (Corbett, Vol 2, Plan No 3 (5.9Mb))

 

S.M.S. "Blücher" (Maritime Quest)

NORTH SEA

24th - Battle of the Dogger Bank. German cruiser "Blücher" (left) sunk. (link to British despatch, awards and casualties)

 

 

Strategical Plan of the Dogger Bank Action (Corbett, Vol 2, pp102)

MONDAY 25th JANUARY

DIPLOMACY

25th - Rumania refuses Entente suggestion that she should join Greece in support of Serbia (see 24th and 29th, October 15th, 1915, and December 6th, 1914).

26th - Entente Governments agree to hold " Pact of London " applicable to war with Turkey (see September 5th, 1914).

29th - Greek Government decline to intervene on behalf of Serbia (see 24th and 25th, and February 15th).

PORTUGAL

25th - General Pimenta da Castro succeeds Senhor Coutinho as Portuguese Premier (see December 12th, 1914, and May 14th, 1915).

WESTERN FRONT

First Battle of Champagne continues.

25th - Lieut.-General Sir W. Bobertson appointed Chief of the General Staff, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 24th, and December 22nd).

27th - Lieut.-General Sir R. C. Maxwell appointed Quartermaster-General, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 24th, and December 22nd, 1917).

 

EASTERN FRONT

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl continues.

 

CAUCASIAN FRONT

30th - Tabriz (North Persia) reoccupied by Russian forces (see 8th, and June 14h, 1918).

PALESTINE FRONT

26th - Turkish advance on Suez Canal and Egypt through Sinai begins (see February 2nd).

 

 

CRUISER WARFARE

28th - United States S.V. "William P. Frye" sunk by German armed merchant cruiser "Prinz Eitel Friedrich" (see August 6th, 1914, and April 8th, 1915).

U-BOAT WARFARE

30th - British Admiralty warn British merchant vessels to fly neutral or no ensigns in vicinity of British Isles (see February 6th, 7th and 11th).

BRITISH COASTAL RAID

29th - Walney Island battery (Barrow-in-Furness) shelled by German submarine (first operation of German submarines in the Irish Sea).

DARDANELLES

28th - British Government definitely decide to make naval attack on the Dardanelles (see 13th). (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)

RED SEA

31st - Arab forces (Idrisi) occupy Farasan Islands in the Red Sea (see April 28th).


MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 24 ships of 49,000 tons gross (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

FEBRUARY 1915

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

MONDAY 1ST FEBRUARY

DIPLOMACY

2nd - Entente communication to Greek, Serbian, and Montenegrin Governments deprecating their intervention in Albania (see June 26th).

3rd - Agreement concluded between Great Britain and Belgium concerning delimitation of Uganda-Congo boundary.

3rd - Bulgarian Government negotiate loan of £3,000,000 in Germany (see August 6th).

5th - British, French and Russian Governments agree to pool their financial resources (see June 3rd).

WESTERN FRONT

First Battle of Champagne continues.

 

 

EASTERN FRONT

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl continues.

4th - The Winter Battle in Masuria (East Prussia) begins (see 22nd).

 

ARABIA

2nd - Aden Protectorate invaded by Turkish forces.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 


Suez Canal (Corbett, Vol 2, pp118)

MERCHANT SHIPPING

1st - British Admiralty issue orders forbidding neutral fishing vessels to use British ports.

6th - British S.S. "Lusitania" arrives at Liverpool flying United States flag (see 7th, January 30th and May 7th).

7th - British Foreign Office issue statement justifying use of neutral flag at sea (see 6th, 11th, and January 30th).

U-BOAT WARFARE

4th - German Government announce that submarine blockade of Great Britain will begin on the 18th February.

PALESTINE FRONT (plan - left)

2nd - Turkish advance-guards reach the Suez Canal (see 3rd, and January 20th).

3rd Actions on the Suez Canal begin (see 4th).

4th - Actions on the Suez Canal end (see 3rd). Turkish forces retreat into Sinai. (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)

MONDAY 8th FEBRUARY

 

WESTERN FRONT

First Battle of Champagne continues.

 

 

EASTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl.

Winter Battle in Masuria.

 

EMPIRE TROOP MOVEMENTS

9th - 1st Canadian Division crosses from England to France (9th/11th) (see October 15th, 1914).

MERCHANT SHIPPING

11th - United States Government send Note to British Government deprecating use of neutral flag (see 7th).

11th - S.S. "Dacia" sails from United States for Bremen (Germany) with cargo of cotton (see 27th, and January 6th).

MONDAY 15th FEBRUARY

DIPLOMACY

15th - Entente Governments suggest to Greek Government that Greece should intervene in support of Serbia, and promise military support at Salonika (see January 29th and March 5th).

PERSIA

20th - Muavin ed Douleh succeeds Ala es Sultaneh as Persian Foreign Minister (see August 19th, 1914, and April 26th, 1915).

WESTERN FRONT

First Battle of Champagne continues.

AVIATION

17th - German airship "L.-3" stranded and destroyed off Fano, and "L.-4" destroyed near Blaavands Huk (Denmark).

 

EASTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl.

Winter Battle in Masuria.

17th - Czernowitz (Bukovina) retaken by Austrian forces (see October 28th, 1914, and June 17th, 1916).

17th - Memel reoccupied by German forces (see November 11th, 1914, and March 18th, 1915).

19th - Stanislau (Galicia) captured by Austrian forces (see October 30th, 1914, and March 4th, 1915).

 

DARDANELLES/GALLIPOLI

16th - British Government decide to send a division (the 29th) to the Dardanelles (see 20th, and April 25th).

20th - Orders issued for employment at the Dardanelles of the Australian and New Zealand troops in Egypt (see 16th, and December 1st, 1914).

WEST AFRICA

16th - Oyem (Cameroons) occupied by French forces.

MALAY STATES

15th - Mutiny of the 5th Light Infantry (Indian Army) at Singapore.

 


The Dardanelles, Bombardment of February 19th, 1915 (Corbett, Vol 2, pp143)

CONTRABAND CONTROL

16th - British Government extend prohibition of "trading with the enemy" to territories in British, enemy, or friendly occupation.

NAVAL PRIZES

15th - Agreement concluded between Great Britain and France supplementing "prize" convention of November 9th, 1914

U-BOAT WARFARE

18th - German submarine blockade of Great Britain begins (see 4th).

19th - Norwegian S.S. "Belridge" torpedoed, but reaches port. First ship torpedoed by German submarine without warning (German Government subsequently asserted that this ship was attacked in error.) (see October 20th, 1914, and March 13th, 1915).

DARDANELLES (plan - left)

19th - Allied naval attack on the Dardanelles forts commences (see March 18th). (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)

MONDAY 22nd FEBRUARY

 

WESTERN FRONT

First Battle of Champagne continues.

26th - Liquid fire first used by the Germans on the Western front.

EASTERN FRONT

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl continues.

22nd - The Winter Battle in Masuria ends (see 4th).

22nd - First Battle of Przasnysz begins (see 27th).

27th - First Battle of Przasnysz ends (see 22nd).

 
Dardanelles, Bombardment of February 25th (Corbett, Vol 2, pp157)

SOUTH WEST AFRICA

22nd - South African Northern Force begins advance from Swakopmund on Windhuk, German South-West Africa(see January 14th).

 

 


 

 Operations in the Aegean (Corbett, Vol 3, Map Case No.5)

 

 

EMPIRE TROOP MOVEMENTS

24th - The first British Territorial division, the North Midland, leaves England for France. Not to be confused with first division of the New Armies, for which see May 9th.

MERCHANT SHIPPING

27th - S.S. "Dacia" intercepted and seized by French naval forces (see 11th, and March 22nd).

U-BOAT WARFARE

22nd - Net barrage across North Channel, between Ireland and Scotland, established.

AEGEAN (plan - left)

23rd - Lemnos occupied by British marines (see March 7th).

DARDANELLES (plan - far left)

25th - Allied naval attack on the Dardanelles forts continues (see February 19th). (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)


MERCHANT SHIPPING (cont)

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 25 ships of 60,000 tons gross (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

 

MARCH 1915

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

MONDAY 1st MARCH

DIPLOMACY

4th - Russian Government send circular telegram to Entente Governments laying claim to Constantinople (see 12th).

7th - Greek Government request explanation of British occupation of Lemnos (see 9th, and February 23rd).

FRANCE

4th - French Government decide to send Expeditionary Force to the Dardanelles (see February 16th and 20th, and April 25th).

GREECE

5th - Greek Premier (M. Venizelos) proffers Greek fleet and troops to Entente for operations at the Dardanelles (see 6th, and February 15th and September 21st).

6th - King of Greece refuses assent to policy of M. Venizelos (see 5th). M. Venizelos resigns office as Premier (see 9th, and August 22nd) (date of appointment October 19th, 1910).

WESTERN FRONT

First Battle of Champagne continues.

.

 

EASTERN FRONT

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl continues.

4th - Stanislau (Galicia) recaptured by Russian forces (see February 19th and June 8th).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Smyrna (Corbett, Vol 2, pp210)

 

CONTRABAND CONTROL

1st - Joint declaration signed by Great Britain and France to prevent trade by or with Germany (see April 17th, 1916).

U-BOAT WARFARE

4th - First case of "indicator" nets aiding in the destruction of a German submarine, "U.-8," in Straits of Dover. (First experimented with in January 1915)

ADRIATIC

1st - Antivari (Montenegro) bombarded by Austrian squadron (see January 22nd, 1916).

AEGEAN 5th - Bombardment of Smyrna by British squadron under Admiral Peirse begins (see 9th). (plan - left)

EAST AFRICA

1st - British blockade of German East Africa commences.

 

MONDAY 8th MARCH

DIPLOMACY

9th - British Government reply to Greek Government as to occupation of Lemnos, pleading military necessity (see 7th and 20th).

12th - British Government notify Russian Government of their acceptance of Russian claims to Constantinople (see 4th, April 12th, 1915, and December 2nd, 1916).

13th - Agreement signed by French and Belgian Governments suspending Franco-Belgian Convention of July 30th, 1891, regarding military service laws.

GREECE

9th - M. Gounaris appointed Premier of Greece (see 6th, and August 22nd).

PERSIA

14th - Mushir ed Dowleh succeeds Mustaufi ul Mainalek as Persian Prime Minister (see August 19th, 1914, and April 26th, 1915).

WESTERN FRONT

First Battle of Champagne continues.

10th - Battle of Neuve Chapelle begins.

13th - Battle of Neuve Chapelle ends.

 

EASTERN FRONT

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl continues.

 



Eastern Mediterranean (Corbett, Vol 2, pp382)

DARDANELLES/GALLIPOLI

12th - General Sir Ian Hamilton appointed Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean (Dardanelles) Expeditionary Force (see 17th). (see plan - left)

 


 S.M.S. "Dresden" (Maritime Quest)



The Search for, and Destruction of S.M.S. Dresden
(Corbett, Vol 2, Plan No 5 (8.9Mb))

CONTRABAND CONTROL

11th - British " Retaliatory Order in Council" relating to detention of enemy goods and Proclamation extending list of "absolute" contraband issued (see 12th, and December 23rd, 1914).

12th - French Government issue decrees similar to British Order in Council and Proclamation of the 11th March.

MERCHANT SHIPPING

12th - Dutch Government issue warning that foreign merchant ships using Dutch flag will be detained (see January 30th and February 11th).

CRUISER WARFARE

14th - Light cruiser "Dresden" (left, also plan) the last German cruiser left at sea, sunk by British warships in Chilean waters off Juan Fernandez (see December 8th, 1914, and April 26th, 1915).

U-BOAT WARFARE

13th - Swedish S.S. "Hanna" torpedoed without warning. First neutral ship actually sunk by German submarine (see 25th and 28th, and February 19th).

AEGEAN

9th - British bombardment of Smyrna ends (see 5th and 15th).

MONDAY 15th MARCH

DIPLOMACY

17th - French Government lodge claim with British Government to Syria and Cilicia (Turkey) (see April 26th, 1916).

20th - British Government guarantee Greece eventual cession of Lemnos by Turkey (see 9th and July 25th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

17th - First Battle of Champagne ends (see December 20th, 1914).

AVIATION

21st - First German airship raid on Paris takes place (see August 30th, 1914, and January 29th, 1916).

 

EASTERN FRONT

Second Russian Siege of Przemysl continues.

18th - Memel (East Prussia) again captured by Russian forces (see 21st, and February 17th).

21st - Memel (East Prussia) reoccupied by German forces (see 18th).

 

 

 

 
The Dardanelles, the Attack on the Narrows (Corbett, Vol 2, pp230)

DARDANELLES/GALLIPOLI

17th - General Sir Ian Hamilton takes over command of Dardanelles Expeditionary Force (see 12th, and October 15th).

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

18th - General Sir John Nixon appointed Commander-in-Chief British Forces in Mesopotamia (see April 9th).

SOUTH WEST AFRICA

20th - Action of Jakalswater (German South-West Africa).

 

 

Gallipoli 1915

CONTRABAND CONTROL

18th - British Government conclude agreement with American cotton interests that cotton should be contraband.

19th - Dutch Government lodge protest against blockade policy of the Entente (see 11th and 12th).

DARDANELLES (Plans - left)

18th - Allied Naval attack on the Dardanelles forts repulsed (see February 19th). French battleship "Bouvet" (below - Photo ships) and British battleships "Irresistible" and "Ocean" sunk. (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)

 

AEGEAN

15th - British Squadron blockading Smyrna withdrawn (see 5th and 9th).

AVIATION

15th - First merchant ship (S.S. "Blonde") attacked by aircraft.

MONDAY 22nd MARCH

DIPLOMACY

23rd - Chinese and Japanese Governments conclude secret agreement as to future policy in Manchuria.

 

WESTERN FRONT

 

EASTERN FRONT

22nd - Przemysl capitulates to Russian forces (see November 10th, 1914, and June 3rd, 1915).

 

DARDANELLES/GALLIPOLI